Sexual reproduction in flowering plant
Sexual reproduction in flowering plant is the process of development of new organisms through the formation and fusion of gametes. The flower is the main structure concerned with reproduction, The reproductive organs or the sporophylls are produced within the flowers. The sporophylls are of two types microsporophylls ( stamen) and megasporophylls ( carpel) Stamen is distinguished as filament, anther and connective. Carpel is distinguished as ovary bearing ovule, style and stigma.
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Formation of embryo sac:
- The nucleus of the functional megaspore divides mitotically to form two nuclei which move to the opposite poles, forming the two nucleate embryo sac. Two more sequential mitotic nuclear division results in formation of four nucleate and later eight nucleate stages of embryo sac.
- These mitotic division are strictly free. i.e. nuclear divisions are not followed immediately by cell wall formation. After the eight nucleate stage, cell walls are laid down leading to the organization of the typical female gametophyte or embryo sac.
- Six of eight nuclei are surrounded by cell walls and organized into cells, the remaining two nuclei, called polar nuclei are situated below the egg apparatus in the large central cell
- Three cells are grouped together at the micropylar end and constitute the egg apparatus. The egg apparatus consists of two synergids and one egg cell. The synergids have special cellular thickenings at the micropylar tip called filiform apparatus, which play an important role in guiding the pollen tubes into the
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