# Basics of Human Anatomy (General Anatomy)

Hello Students; In this topic we are going to discuss about the basics of Human Anatomy (General Anatomy) which is very essential before start the Gross Anatomy.

**Anatomical Position:** It is the standard reference position of the body used to describe the location and inter-relationship of various parts and organs of the body. The body is in anatomical position when:

- Body is in upright standing position.
- Eyes are looking straight forward.
- Upper limbs are hanging by the sides and palms are facing forward with the fingers straight and together.
- Lower limbs are parallel (feet are together) and the toes are pointing forward.

The **major imaginary planes** that pass through the body **in anatomical position** are

**1. Median (mid-sagittal) plane:** It is a vertical plane that passes longitudinally through the midline of the body and dividing it into equal right and left halves.

**2. Sagittal plane**: An imaginary vertical plane that is parallel to median plane and divides the body into unequal right and left parts.

**3. Coronal plane:** An imaginary vertical plane that is at right angle to the median plane and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

**4. Transverse/ horizontal plane:** An imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal plane.

**5. Oblique plane**: A plane that divides the body at an angle between the horizontal and vertical planes.

**Anatomical terms used to describe movements** are:

**Flexion:**It is bending of parts of the body in sagittal plane such that the two flexor surface come close to each other and the angle of the joint is decreased.**Extension:**The movement occurs in sagittal plane such that the angle of the joint increases.**Adduction:**The movement occurs in coronal plane such that the part of the body moves towards the median plane.**Abduction:**The movement occurs in coronal plane such that the body moves away from the median plane.**Circumduction:**It is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction such that the distal end of the moving part moves in a circle.**Medial rotation:**is a rotational movement towards the midline.**Lateral rotation:**is a rotating movement away from the midline.**Pronation:**Medial rotation of forearm along with the hand such that the palm faces posteriorly. In semiflexed elbow, the palm faces downwards**Supination:**Lateral rotation of forearm along with the hand such that the palm faces anteriorly. In semi flexed elbow , the palm faces upwards.**Inversion:**It is the movement of foot in which sole faces inwards or medially.**Eversion :**It is the movement of foot in which sole faces outwards or laterally.**Protraction:**In this movement the part of the body moves forward.**Retraction:**In this movement the part of the body moves backwards such that from the protracted position is moves back to the anatomical position.**Opposition:**It is the movement of thumb such that the the tip of the thumb touches the tip of other digits.

basics of Human Anatomy