Basics of Human Anatomy (General Anatomy)

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Duration: 15 days
Lectures: 4
Level: Beginner
Basics of Human Anatomy

Hello Students; In this topic we are going to discuss about the basics of Human Anatomy (General Anatomy) which is very essential before start the Gross Anatomy.

Anatomical Position: It is the standard reference position of the body used to describe the location and inter-relationship of various parts and organs of the body. The body is in anatomical position when:

  • Body is in upright standing position.
  • Eyes are looking straight forward.
  • Upper limbs are hanging by the sides and palms are facing forward with the fingers straight and together.
  • Lower limbs are parallel (feet are together) and the toes are pointing forward.

The major imaginary planes that pass through the body in anatomical position are

1. Median  (mid-sagittal) plane: It is a vertical plane that passes longitudinally through the midline of the body and dividing it into equal right and left halves.
2. Sagittal plane: An imaginary vertical plane that is parallel to median plane and divides the body into unequal right and left parts.
3. Coronal plane: An imaginary vertical plane that is at right angle to the median plane and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
4. Transverse/ horizontal plane: An imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal plane.
5. Oblique plane: A plane that divides the body at an angle between the horizontal and vertical planes.

Anatomical terms used to describe movements are:

  • Flexion: It is bending of parts of the body in sagittal plane such that the two flexor surface come close to each other and the  angle of the joint is decreased.
  • Extension: The movement occurs in sagittal plane such that the angle of the joint increases.
  • Adduction: The movement occurs in coronal plane such that the part of the body moves towards the median plane.
  • Abduction: The movement occurs in coronal plane such that the body moves away from the median plane.
  • Circumduction: It is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction such that the distal end of the moving part  moves in a circle.
  • Medial rotation: is a rotational movement towards the midline.
  • Lateral rotation: is a rotating movement away from the midline.
  • Pronation: Medial rotation of forearm along with the hand such that the palm faces posteriorly. In semiflexed elbow, the palm faces downwards
  • Supination: Lateral rotation of forearm along with the hand such that the palm faces anteriorly. In semi flexed elbow , the palm faces upwards.
  • Inversion: It is the movement of foot in which sole faces inwards or medially.
  • Eversion : It is the movement of foot in which sole faces outwards or laterally.
  • Protraction: In this movement the part of the body moves forward.
  • Retraction: In this movement the part of the body moves backwards such that from the protracted position is moves back to the  anatomical position.
  • Opposition: It is the movement of thumb such that the the tip of the thumb touches the tip of other digits.

 

basics of Human Anatomy

Tissue

1
Basics of Connective Tissue
2
Muscular Tissue
3
Epithelial Tissue
4
Nervous Tissue

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