The thorax is the part of the body between the neck and abdomen. Commonly the term chest is used as a synonym for thorax, but the chest is much more extensive than the thoracic wall and cavity contained within it. The chest is generally conceived as the superior part of the trunk that is broadest superiorly owing to the presence of the pectoral, or shoulder, girdle (clavicles and scapulae), with much of its girth accounted for by the pectoral and scapular musculature and, in adult females, the breasts.
The thorax includes the primary organs of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The majority of the thoracic cavity is occupied by the lungs, which provide for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and blood. Most of the remainder of the thoracic cavity is occupied by the heart and structures involved in conducting the air and blood to and from the lungs. Additionally, nutrients (food) traverse the thoracic cavity via the esophagus, passing from the site of entry in the head to the site of digestion and absorption in the abdomen.
Although in terms of function and development the mammary glands are most related to the reproductive system, the breasts are located on and are typically dissected with the
thoracic wall; thus they are included in this chapter.
After enroll in this course, you can access the short notes and assessments of thorax region including the gross structures, embryology, micro anatomy (Histo) as well as the clinical aspects of thorax.