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UPPER LIMB GROSS FEATURES
UPPER LIMB GROSS ANATOMICAL FEATURES
- The upper limb is characterized by its mobility and ability to
grasp, strike and conduct fine motor skills. These characteristics are especially marked in the hand when performing manual activities such as buttoning a shirt. Synchronized interplay occurs between the joints of the upper limb to coordinate the intervening segments to perform smooth, efficient motion at the most workable distance or position required for a specific task.
- The efficiency of hand function results in large part from the ability to place it in the proper position by movements at the scapulothoracic, glenohumeral, elbow, radio-ulnar, and wrist joints.
- The upper limb consists of four major segments, which are further subdivided into regions for a precise description
- Shoulder: The proximal segment of the limb that overlaps parts of the trunk (thorax and back) and lowers lateral neck. It includes the pectoral, scapular, and deltoid regions of the upper limb and the lateral part (greater supraclavicular fossa) of the lateral cervical region. It overlies half of the pectoral girdle. The pectoral (shoulder) girdle is a bony ring, incomplete posteriorly, formed by the scapulae and clavicles and completed anteriorly by the manubrium of the sternum (part of the axial skeleton).
- Arm: first segment of the free upper limb (more mobile part of the upper limb independent of the
trunk) and the longest segment of the limb. It extends between and connects the shoulder and the elbow and consists of anterior and posterior regions of the arm, centered around the humerus.
- Forearm: The second-longest segment of the limb. It extends between and connects the elbow and the wrist and includes anterior and posterior regions of the forearm overlying the radius and ulna.
- Hand: part of the upper limb distal to the forearm that is formed around the carpus, metacarpus, and
phalanges. It is composed of the wrist, palm, dorsum of the hand, and digits (fingers, including an opposable thumb) and is richly supplied with sensory endings for touch, pain, and temperature.
COMPARISON OF UPPER AND LOWER LIMBS
- The upper and lower limbs share many common features. However, they are sufficiently distinct in structure to enable markedly different functions and abilities. Because the upper limb is not usually involved in weight-bearing or motility, its stability has been sacrificed to gain mobility. The upper limb still possesses
- Both the upper and the lower limbs are connected to the axial skeleton (cranium, vertebral column, and associated thoracic cage) via the bony pectoral and pelvic girdles, respectively.
- The pelvic girdle consists of the two hip bones connected to the sacrum. The pectoral girdle consists of the scapulae and clavicles, connected to the manubrium of the sternum.
- Both girdles possess a large flat bone located posteriorly, which provides for attachment of proximal muscles and connects with its contralateral partner anteriorly via small bony braces, the pubic rami, and clavicles.
- In both the upper and the lower limbs, the long bone of the most proximal segment is the largest and is unpaired. The long bones increase progressively in number but decrease in size in the more distal segments of the limb.
- The second most proximal segment of both limbs (i.e., the leg and forearm) has two parallel bones, although only in the forearm do both articulate with the bone of the proximal segment and only in the leg do both articulate directly with the distal segment.
- The wrist and ankle have a similar number of short bones (eight and seven, respectively). Both groups of short bones interrupt a series of long bones that resumes distally with several sets of long bones of similar lengths, with a similar number of joints of essentially the same type.
- The digits of the upper limb (fingers including the thumb) are the most mobile parts of either limb. However, all the other parts of the upper limb are more mobile than the comparable parts of the lower limb.
THANKS: Join the course UPPER LIMB GROSS ANATOMICAL FEATURES
Clinical Skills for Medical Students, CLICK HERE
GROSS ANATOMY OF LOWER LIMB, CLICK HERE
BONES OF UPPER LIMB
Quick Review on BONES
JOINT OF UPPER LIMB
Quick Review on Shoulder Joint
QUICK REVIEW ON ELBOW JOINT
AXILLARY LYMPH NODES
BREAST: CLINICAL ASPECT
DEVELOPMENTAL ANOMALIES OF UPPER LIMB
BRACHIAL PLEXUX INJURIES
BONE AND JOINT INJURY