BASICS OF HUMAN ANATOMY
Hello Students; In this topic, we are going to discuss the BASICS OF HUMAN ANATOMY (General Anatomy) which is very essential before starting the Gross Anatomy.
Anatomical Position: It is the standard reference position of the body used to describe the location and inter-relationship of various parts and organs of the body. The body is in anatomical position when:
- The body is in an upright standing position.
- Eyes are looking straightforward.
- Upper limbs are hanging by the sides and palms are facing forward with the fingers straight and together.
- Lower limbs are parallel (feet are together) and the toes are pointing forward.
The major imaginary planes that pass through the body in anatomical position are
1. Median (mid-sagittal) plane: It is a vertical plane that passes longitudinally through the midline of the body and dividing it into equal right and left halves.
2. Sagittal plane: An imaginary vertical plane that is parallel to the median plane and divides the body into unequal right and left parts.
3. Coronal plane: An imaginary vertical plane that is at the right angle to the median plane and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
4. Transverse/ horizontal plane: An imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to the coronal and sagittal planes.
5. Oblique plane: A plane that divides the body at an angle between the horizontal and vertical planes.
Anatomical terms used to describe movements are:
- Flexion: It is bending of parts of the body in sagittal plane such that the two flexor surface come close to each other and the angle of the joint is decreased.
- Extension: The movement occurs in sagittal plane such that the angle of the joint increases.
- Adduction: The movement occurs in coronal plane such that the part of the body moves towards the median plane.
- Abduction: The movement occurs in coronal plane such that the body moves away from the median plane.
- Circumduction: It is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction such that the distal end of the moving part moves in a circle.
- Medial rotation: is a rotational movement towards the midline.
- Lateral rotation: is a rotating movement away from the midline.
- Pronation: Medial rotation of forearm along with the hand such that the palm faces posteriorly. In semiflexed elbow, the palm faces downwards
- Supination: Lateral rotation of forearm along with the hand such that the palm faces anteriorly. In semi flexed elbow , the palm faces upwards.
- Inversion: It is the movement of foot in which sole faces inwards or medially.
- Eversion : It is the movement of foot in which sole faces outwards or laterally.
- Protraction: In this movement the part of the body moves forward.
- Retraction: In this movement the part of the body moves backwards such that from the protracted position is moves back to the anatomical position.
- Opposition: It is the movement of thumb such that the the tip of the thumb touches the tip of other digits.
basics of Human Anatomy